Sunday, December 27, 2015

Social Studies 社會 4, First Semester 上, Unit 1 第一單元

The Chinese text below was taken from the textbook published by Kang Shuan 康軒文教事業.

一 Unit One: 美麗的家鄉 Beautiful Hometown

每一個人的家鄉環境各不相同, 人們依據環境的特性, 發展出各具特色的居住型態, 形成美麗的家鄉.  Everyone's hometown environment is different.  People adapt their ways of life to their environment, and [in the process] make their hometown beautiful.

第一課 Lesson One: 家鄉的環境 Hometown Environment

家鄉, 是人們生活的地方, 家鄉的環境各有特色.  我們可以從地形, 氣候, 河川與水資源等方面, 觀察與認識家鄉的環境.  A hometown is where people live.  The environment of every hometown is different.  From terrain, weather, rivers and water resources we can both observe and understand our hometown's environment.

家鄉的地形 Hometown Terrain

家鄉的地形各有不同, 有些人的家鄉在山地, 有些人的家鄉在丘陵, 有些則在平原, 盆地或台地.  Every hometown's terrain is different.  Some people live in the mountains, some people live in the hills, some people live on the plains, and some people live in valleys [basins] or terraces.

家鄉的氣候 Hometown Weather

不同的家鄉, 氣候也各不相同.  有些地方的四季炎熱, 如屏東, 臺東等地; 有些地方夏熱冬冷, 如台北, 宜蘭等地.  有些地方四季多雨, 如基隆, 宜蘭; 有些地方夏季多雨, 冬季少雨, 如高雄, 臺南.  Different hometowns have different types of weather.  In places like Pingtung and Taitung it's hot year round; in places like Taipei and Yilan it's hot in the summer and cold in the winter.  In places like Keelung and Yilan it rains all year, while in places like Kaohsiung and Tainan it rains more in the summer and less in the winter.

氣溫, 雨量的變化, 會影響家鄉居民的生活.  夏季氣溫如果過高, 酷熱容易引發中署, 造成戶外工作的不便; 冬季寒流來襲時, 低溫容易造成農, 漁作物的損失.  如果雨量過多, 容易使低窪地區淹水, 或在山區引發土石流, 危及居民的生命與財產; 但如果雨量太少, 則容易發生缺水的現象.  Changes in temperatures and rainfall affect people's lives.  When temperatures soar in the summer people can get heat stroke, and working outside is not convenient.  When it gets very cold in the winter, the low temperatures can trigger losses in agricultural and fishing industries.  If there is too much rain, low lying areas will flood, and landslides will occur in the mountains.  These in turn threaten people's lives and destroy property.  If there isn't enough rain water, water shortages can result.

家鄉的河川與水資源 Hometown Rivers and Water Resources

大多數人的家鄉, 都有河川經過.  有些河川水量比較穩定, 如蘭陽溪; 有些則隨著乾溼季節而變化, 如濁水溪.  Rivers [and streams] pass through [or by] most people's hometowns.  The amount of water in some rivers is fairly constant, as is [the case with] the Lan Yang River [in Yilan County].  Other rivers, however, change with the seasons, as is [the case with] the Juo Shui River [between Chang Hua and Yunlin Counties].

河水大多流入海洋, 有些則滲入地下成為地下水.  河水和地下水都是家鄉重要的水資源, 可以被用來灌溉農田, 養殖水產; 有些河川則在上有興建水庫蓄水, 除了供應發電外, 也提供農業, 工業和民生用水.  Most rivers flow into the ocean, though some flow under the ground and become underground water [aquifers].  River water and aquifers are an important hometown water resource, which can be used to irrigate fields and replenish fish ponds.  Some river water is stored in reservoirs behind dams, and aside from providing electricity is also of use to agriculture, industry, and the average person.

生活場所的選擇 Choosing a Place to Live

每一個人的家鄉環境個不同, 過去先民大多選擇地形平坦, 氣候良好, 取水方便, 開墾容易的地方作為生活場所, 建立家園.  Everyone's hometown environment is different.  Most of our ancestors chose places where the terrain was flat, where the weather was good, where water was accessible, and where farming was easier, to settle and make their homes.

到了現代, 人們選擇生活場所的因素更加多元, 除了自然環境之外, 還包括就業機會, 交通條件, 公共建設, 醫療及教育等因素.  In modern times people have even more reasons to settle in different places.  Aside from natural settings, they look for job opportunities, transportation options, public facilities, medical facilities, and educational opportunities.

第二課 Lesson Two: 居住的型態 Ways of Life

由於各地環境不同, 人口分布和居住型態也不一樣, 發展的產業也會有所差異.  Aside from differences in environment, the number of people [in a place] and their way of life can also differ.  The local products [each place offers] also have their own unique characteristics.

平原地區的居住型態 Lifestyles on the Plains

平原地區地形平坦, 農業生產條件較佳, 人口數量較多.  在取水方便, 可以耕種水稻的地區, 由於農民需要大量的時間和勞力照顧作物, 大多分散居住在自己的田地四周.  Land on the plains is flat, farming conditions are better, and population is higher.  Getting water is easier, and rice can be cultivated.  Farmers need a lot of time and manpower to grow their crops, and most live in the midst of their fields.

有些田地引水較困難, 只能發展甘薯, 甘蔗等早作農業, 由於照顧作物所需要的時間和勞力較少, 同時為了方便取水和互相照顧, 居民一般多集中居住在一起.  In some places water is harder to get, and farmers can only grow sweet potatoes, sugar cane, or other types of fast-growing crops that require less time and manpower.  In order to more easily acquire water and to farm cooperatively, most residents in these areas live close together.

丘陵, 山地地區的居住型態 Lifestyles on the Hills and Mountains

在丘陵, 山地地區, 人口數量較少, 居民多以種植茶, 水果等作物維生.  由於地勢崎嶇, 平地狹窄, 居民大多集中居住在有水源的地方.  Fewer people live on the hills or in the mountains, and most residents grow tea or fruit for their livelihood.  On the rugged terrain flat places are narrower, and people tend to live near sources of water.

海岸地區的居住型態 Lifestyles Near the Ocean

在海岸地區, 由於鄰近海邊, 居民大多從事捕魚, 養殖等活動.  這些活動都需要互助合作, 因此居民大多聚集居住在一起.  Most people living near the ocean catch fish or engage in aquaculture.  These activities require a lot of cooperation, and for this reason people living in these areas live close together.

都市地區的居住型態 Lifestyles in the City

各種地形區內, 交通方便的地點, 常會形成都市.  都市不僅是各種產品加工, 製造, 以及商品買賣的主要場所, 都市內的學校, 醫院, 銀行, 郵局, 戲院和各種行政機關, 也為都市內和附近鄉村的居民提供服務.  On every type of terrain, cities appear where traffic is convenient.  Cities aren't just places where goods are refined, manufactured, bought and sold.  They also have schools, hospitals, banks, post offices, theaters, and every kind of administrative office.  These things provide more services to those living in the city or surrounding villages.

小小公民 Tiny Citizens [Follow Me]*

安全防災遠離災害 Disaster Prevention and Avoidance

臺灣地形豐富而多樣化, 早期居民選擇住地時, 會考量當地自然環境, 選擇比較安全的地方, 作為居住的場所.  例如: 住山地的泰雅族, 大多選擇在陽光充足的平暖坡地, 建立聚落; 移民來臺的漢人, 有的居住在地勢平坦的平原, 有的居住在可以避風的港灣處.  Taiwan's terrain is both rich and diverse.  When the first settlers arrived in Taiwan, they took the natural environment into consideration when selecting a safe place to call home.  For example the Atayal Tribe, which lives in the mountains, usually picked a sunny slope to settle on.  The Chinese who arrived in Taiwan settled on flat land on the plains, or else in a harbor sheltered from the wind.

隨著經濟發展, 人口增加, 許多陡峭的山坡地, 地勢低窪的河川地等, 也被開發成居住地, 這種與天爭地的行為, 可能導致環境問題.  尤其臺灣常受到地震, 颱風, 水災等自然災害影響, 例如: 九二一地震, 莫拉克颱風對臺灣造成重大的災情, 讓人印象深刻.  因此, 確實做好防災教育與防災防災準備, 是非常重要的事情.  As the economy developed, population increased, and many steep mountain valleys prone to flooding have been settled.  This "less natural" type of settlement can cause many environmental problems.  This is especially true with respect to the earthquakes, typhoons, and floods which tend to occur often in Taiwan.  For example the 9-21 Earthquake or Typhoon Morakot were two of Taiwan's biggest natural disasters, and both affected people deeply.  For this reason, making proper preparations and educating people about natural disasters is extremely important.**

政府明訂每年的9月21日為 "國家防災日", 當天各級學校師生都會進行地震, 海嘯, 消防等演習, 藉由舉辦防災演習, 加強大家的防災意識.  我們平常就要定期演練, 熟悉各項避難逃生的方法, 已被不時之需.  這樣, 當災害來臨時, 才可以將損失減到最低.  The government has designated September 21 of every year as "National Disaster Prevention Day."  On this day students and teachers in every school take part in earthquake, flood, and fire drills.  These disaster prevention drills make everyone more aware of how to prevent such disasters.  We all have a set time for these drills, and we practice every type of evacuation technique before the use of these techniques becomes necessary.  In this way we can minimize losses when disaster looms.

想一想 Think About It

1. 在陡峭的山坡地, 容易淹水的河川地興建住宅, 可能帶來哪些環境問題?  In steep mountain areas, what dangers does the environment pose for houses built near flood-prone rivers?

2. 學校舉辦防災活動時, 我們要注意甚麼事情?  When the school holds a disaster prevention activity, what things should we be aware of?

*The "Follow Me" part was in the book.  I have no idea what it's supposed to mean.

**I'm so lucky!  I was close to the epicenters of BOTH these disasters!

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